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Children's Bureau ExpressApril 2017 | Vol. 18, No. 2

Table of Contents
 

Spotlight on National Child Abuse Prevention Month
This month's CBX spotlight features an article on the dental and oral aspects of child maltreatment, recommendations for maintaining a strong and professional child protective services workforce, maltreatment estimates within U.S. military families, and Tribal prevention programs, as well as other resources to help professionals prevent child abuse and neglect.

  • April Is National Child Abuse Prevention Month
  • Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Maltreatment
  • Texas CPS Workforce Analysis and Recommendations
  • Estimation of Maltreatment in Army Families
  • Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs Support Tribal Prevention Efforts

News From the Children's Bureau
We highlight a webinar produced by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation that discusses findings from a survey of American Indian/Alaska Native Head Start programs as well as a new resource guide that provides information on the recent advances in trauma and what these advances mean for program design and service delivery.

  • Findings From the First National Study of Tribal Head Start Programs
  • Resource Guide to Trauma-Informed Human Services
  • CB Website Updates

Child Welfare Research
Read about how the San Francisco Human Services Agency is partnering with the University of California to develop an evidence-driven child welfare workforce; an Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation brief that explains the implications of existing State standards for incorporating relationship-based care into early care programs; and a Department of Justice study evaluating technology-based harassment within the context of other types of youth victimization and risk factors.

  • University-Child Welfare Agency Partnership Helps Build Evidence-Driven Workforce
  • Developing Infant-Toddler Relationship-Based Care
  • Role of Technology in Youth Harassment Victimization

Strategies and Tools for Practice
This section of CBX offers publications, articles, reports, toolkits, and other instruments that provide either evidence-based strategies or other concrete help to child welfare and related professionals.

  • Introduction to Child Welfare Funding
  • Structured Decision-Making Model

Resources
This CBX section provides a quick list of interesting resources, such as websites, videos, journals, funding or scholarship opportunities, or other materials that can be used in the field or with families.

  • Tips for Caring for a Child With Special Health-Care Needs
  • Is It ADHD or Trauma Symptoms?

Training and Conferences

  • A Primer for Youth Justice Advocates
  • Conferences

Spotlight on National Child Abuse Prevention Month

April Is National Child Abuse Prevention Month

Every April, the Children's Bureau observes National Child Abuse Prevention Month to raise public awareness of child abuse and neglect, recommit efforts and resources aimed at protecting children and strengthening families, and promote community involvement through activities that support the cause. The theme of this year's Child Abuse Prevention Month initiative continues to mirror the theme of the 20th National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect, "Building Community, Building Hope."

This year's initiative also highlights the 2016/2017 Prevention Resource Guide: Building Community, Building Hope, which is intended to support child welfare service providers in their work with parents, caregivers, and their children to strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment. It was developed through a partnership between the Office on Child Abuse and Neglect within the Children's Bureau, Child Welfare Information Gateway, and the FRIENDS National Center for Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention. This year, the Prevention Resource Guide was updated with new child maltreatment statistics for Federal fiscal year 2015, which can be found in Chapter 4, "Protecting Children." 

Also in 2017, two new web-only tip sheets were made available on the Child Abuse Prevention Month website. "Find Affordable Housing for Your Family" directs families to valuable resources to understand affordable housing and other available resources. "Preparing Your Family for an Emergency" outlines the components of a family emergency preparedness plan for various types of disasters.

The information and resources available in the Prevention Resource Guide can be used all year to help professionals and families prevent maltreatment and work toward child and family well-being. For more information on National Child Abuse Prevention Month, or to view or order a copy of the 2016/2017 Prevention Resource Guide, visit the National Child Abuse Prevention Month website at https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/preventing/preventionmonth/.

The 2016/2017 Prevention Resource Guide and activity calendars are also available on the Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect section of the Child Welfare Information Gateway website at https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/preventing/.
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Spotlight on National Child Abuse Prevention Month
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4923


Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Maltreatment

The oral and dental aspects of child maltreatment are the focus of a 2016 report from the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. The report reviews the oral and dental characteristics of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and dental neglect and how physicians and dentists can evaluate bite marks, oral injuries, infections, or diseases that might suggest child abuse or neglect. The report notes that physicians receive limited training in oral health and dental injury and, therefore, might not be as likely to detect the oral and dental symptoms of child maltreatment as readily as other physical symptoms. Pediatric dentists and maxillofacial surgeons are required to go through oral and dental-specific child maltreatment training and, as a result, can assist doctors in assessing related symptoms of potential child maltreatment. For example, pediatric and forensically trained dentists can assist physicians in identifying bite marks indicative of abuse and neglect. Physicians and dentists are encouraged to collaborate to increase prevention and detection of possible child abuse and neglect.

More than half of child maltreatment cases involve some injury to the head, face, or neck, according to the report, which recommends a thorough oral examination in all suspected cases of child maltreatment. Eating utensils, bottles, hands, fingers, scalding liquids, and caustic substances can all be used forcefully and maliciously to inflict oral damage. Providers should look for contusions, burns, or lacerations on the lips, cheek, tongue, palate, and gums and for discolored or infected teeth or gums.

The report calls upon pediatricians to be aware of oral and dental injuries as signs of potential maltreatment and the need for follow-up testing. Pediatricians are also encouraged to be aware of bite marks, document them carefully, and consult a pediatric or forensic dentist for appropriate testing, diagnosis, and treatment when questions arise. The report notes that children suspected to have been sexually abused may require specialized forensic testing and that forensic odontologists or pathologists may need to be consulted to evaluate bite marks or infection.

The report points to the Prevent Abuse and Neglect Through Dental Awareness (PANDA) coalition as an important resource for physicians, encouraging physicians with child maltreatment experience to make themselves available to dentists and dental organizations as educators and consultants.

Guideline on Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect is available at http://www.aapd.org/media/Policies_Guidelines/G_Childabuse1.pdf (95 KB).
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Spotlight on National Child Abuse Prevention Month
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4924


Texas CPS Workforce Analysis and Recommendations

Between 2001 and 2015, a total of 3,078 children died as a result of abuse and/or neglect in the State of Texas, and approximately half of those fatalities involved families that had current or previous involvement with child protective services (CPS). These statistics stress the need for dedicated and experienced CPS workers to respond to reports of maltreatment in a timely manner and to conduct trauma-informed investigations, assessments, and removal or placement decisions.

Because of the rising number of child abuse and neglect cases in Texas, hiring and retaining dedicated CPS caseworkers can be a challenge. There are a number of hindrances to job satisfaction in this field, which can lead to a high turnover rate and heavy caseloads for those who stay in their jobs. The report, Child Protective Services Workforce Analysis and Recommendations, produced by the Texas Association for the Protection of Children, addresses the challenges causing CPS workers to voluntarily leave their jobs and provides recommendations to ensure CPS maintains a strong and professional workforce to ensure better outcomes for children in Texas.

The report focuses on the following obstacles that may cause CPS caseworkers to resign from their positions and the recommendations for reform:

The complete report, Child Protective Services Workforce Analysis and Recommendations, is available at http://texprotects.org/media/uploads/improving_the_protection_of_texas_children_workforce_analysis._january_2017_final_release.pdf (1,630 KB).
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Spotlight on National Child Abuse Prevention Month
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4925


Estimation of Maltreatment in Army Families

According to a recent study of the U.S. Army Family Advocacy Program (FAP), which is the agency responsible for providing services to soldiers' families and ensuring child safety, current reporting requirements may contribute to underestimating the actual number of maltreatment cases in U.S. Army families and need revision.

The U.S. Army-sponsored study analyzed medical claims of child maltreatment from both military and civilian doctors that were made between 2004 and 2007 and resulted in a substantiated report to FAP. The study assessed 5,945 medical claims for dependent children of soldiers—ages 0 through 17—who had received a diagnosis of maltreatment from either a military or civilian medical doctor. The study was designed to link the claims with corresponding substantiated reports to FAP and determine how the child, the specific maltreatment episode, and the soldier's characteristics influenced the extent of FAP involvement.

The study found that 20 percent of claims had substantiated FAP reports, and the authors suggest that this likely underestimates the true number of maltreatment victims as many maltreatment cases are either never reported to a child protection agency or are never investigated or substantiated. The authors also emphasize the complexity of reporting requirements for U.S. Army families due to multiple possible routes to communicate reports of suspected maltreatment to the U.S. Army FAP, the likelihood that medical providers are not uniformly reporting maltreatment diagnoses to FAP, and a failure by civilian child protection agencies to consistently share information with FAP on maltreatment reports they receive involving military children. The study authors conclude that this results in an undercounting of military child maltreatment cases and many vulnerable children and families going without needed FAP services.

The authors suggest further study to identify and understand the barriers to more comprehensive child maltreatment reporting and communication across agencies so that programs and policies can be developed to improve FAP reporting and support the children and families of U.S. Army soldiers.

Under-Ascertainment From Healthcare Settings of Child Abuse Events Among Children of Soldiers by the U.S. Army Family Advocacy Program is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0145213416302587.
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Spotlight on National Child Abuse Prevention Month
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4926


Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs Support Tribal Prevention Efforts

The Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention (CBCAP) program, which was established by the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act Amendments of 1996, is a key piece of Federal legislation that provides funding and support to community-based efforts and initiatives to prevent child abuse and neglect. The CBCAP program distributes Federal funds to States and territories under a formula grant, with 1 percent of these funds reserved for Tribes, Tribal organizations, and migrant programs.

Partnering With CBCAP Programs to Support Tribal Prevention Efforts, a brief produced by the FRIENDS National Center for Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention, provides important information on what the CBCAP program entails, including who manages the program at the Federal and State levels, what activities are authorized by the program, and the program's target populations. The brief also describes how Tribal governments and organizations can access CBCAP funds to develop, operate, expand, enhance, and coordinate initiatives, programs, and activities aimed at supporting families and preventing child abuse and neglect. 

Tribal governments and organization can access CBCAP funds in the following two ways:

Although Tribes, Tribal organizations, and migrant programs are encouraged to take advantage of the funds available through the CBCAP program, only a few have accessed State CBCAP funding. Infrequent participation by Tribes may be attributed to the inexperience of the State Lead Agencies in working with Tribal governments and a lack of awareness of culturally appropriate outreach and programming. Collaborating with State Lead Agencies is highly recommended to bring awareness to Tribes' unmet needs and to help Tribes receive CBCAP funding for culturally specific support of Tribal children and families.

The full article, Partnering With Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention (CBCAP) Programs to Support Tribal Governments and Tribal Organization's Prevention Efforts, is available at https://friendsnrc.org/component/jdownloads/download/72-attachments/1877-partnering-with-cbcap-programs-to-support-tribal-governments-and-tribal-organizations-prevention-efforts (PDF - 647 KB).
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Spotlight on National Child Abuse Prevention Month
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4927


News From the Children's Bureau

Findings From the First National Study of Tribal Head Start Programs

The webinar, "Study Progress & Selected Findings From the First National Study of Tribal Head Start Programs," produced by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, discusses the methods, findings, and implications gleaned from the first time Region 11 was included in the Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES). Region 11 primarily comprises American Indian and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) on or near reservations and serves federally recognized programs in 26 States.

Historically, Region 11 Head Start programs operating in Tribal communities were not included in FACES, mainly attributed to Tribal concerns about research in general as well as the unique protocols for research involving sovereign Tribal nations. To close this gap in Head Start data, AI/AN FACES set out to provide Federal, Tribal, and program stakeholders with data they can use to inform policies and practices that address the needs of children and families in Region 11. The data collected from AI/AN FACES can also be used to describe the school readiness skills of children in Region 11 and how they compare to children of similar ages in the general population as well as to other Head Start children in Regions 1 through 10. 

The following are the key features of AI/AN FACES:

The data garnered from AI/AN FACES found that a majority of families in Region 11 have access to financial resources and are food secure, but many still have needs related to their economic well-being. With regard to psychological well-being, a majority (58 percent) of parents in Region 11 reported that they were not depressed, but a sizeable number reported symptoms of being mildly (24 percent) or moderately (10 percent) depressed. Additionally, a small percentage indicated they are severely depressed. In addition, data show that culture and language—as well as participation in cultural community activities, such as dancing, drumming, and interacting with elders—are important to Head Start families in Region 11. 

To learn more about AI/AN FACES and to view the complete webinar, visit https://www.acf.hhs.gov/opre/resource/study-progress-selected-findings-from-the-first-national-study-of-tribal-head-start-programs.

Related Item

Children's Bureau Express has covered previous rounds of FACES in the following articles:

 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: News From the Children's Bureau
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4928


Resource Guide to Trauma-Informed Human Services

Trauma can have a profound effect on how a person learns; interacts with others; and develops mentally, physically, or emotionally. Human services agencies that use a trauma-informed approach develop programs and services that take into account the effects of trauma on individuals, children, and families. A new resource guide produced by several Federal agencies provides human services leaders and other stakeholders at the local, State, Tribal, and territorial levels with information and resources on recent advances in trauma and what these advances mean for program design and service delivery. It also teaches professionals about trauma-informed care and helps those currently engaged in trauma-informed work to improve their practice.

The guide is divided into the following four sections:

The complete Resource Guide to Trauma-Informed Human Services was produced by the collaborative efforts of the Administration for Children and Families, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the Administration for Community Living, and the Offices of the Assistant Secretary for Health and the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. It is available at https://www.acf.hhs.gov/trauma-toolkit.
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: News From the Children's Bureau
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4929


CB Website Updates

The Children's Bureau website hosts information on child welfare programs, funding, monitoring, training and technical assistance, laws, statistics, research, Federal reporting, and much more.

Recent additions to the site include the following:

Visit the Children's Bureau website often to see what's new.
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: News From the Children's Bureau
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4930


Child Welfare Research

University-Child Welfare Agency Partnership Helps Build Evidence-Driven Workforce

The San Francisco Human Services Agency (HSA) is partnering with the School of Social Welfare at the University of California, Berkeley in a public-private partnership aimed at developing an evidence-driven child welfare workforce.

The Cal-Child Welfare Leadership Training (Cal-CWLT) is a 5-year student and staff training and leadership partnership funded through a National Child Welfare Workforce Institute grant that includes HSA, Berkeley, and the Seneca Family of Agencies. The partnership was launched to help child welfare agencies make better decisions for the children in their care by relying more on evidence-based practice (EBP) and by sharing this knowledge with the incoming workforce and current child welfare administrators.

At the heart of this initiative is increasing Federal and State reliance on continuous quality improvement (CQI) as a tool to ensure greater use of EBP to guide the strategic use of limited resources. CQI is designed to provide a framework for making practice and policy decisions using the best information available. Round 3 of the Child and Family Services Reviews includes a provision for States to evaluate specific policy and practice changes by measuring their child welfare outcomes. The interest in building CQI capacity offers an opportunity to train existing and incoming child welfare staff on how to best use data and EBP for better decision-making in child welfare practice.

Cal-CWLT provides for collaboration between public and private agencies, a local university, students in the Master of Social Work program, and child welfare agency supervisors and middle managers that focuses on which child welfare practices are most successful in the field. Cal-CWLT uses the principles of CQI—observation, question and hypothesis development, testing, hypothesis revision, and theory development—to bridge the gap between research and practice.

A recent article in the Journal of Social Work Education describes this effort to build and support the components of a successful CQI infrastructure and points to several barriers to an EBP-based child welfare system, including the difficulty interpreting and choosing from the large amount of available research, time constraints, skepticism about the validity of data, and dilemmas in applying research to specific situations. To combat this, the article suggests that training can help familiarize workers with data and help them connect their practice with outcomes. The authors explain that the Cal-CWLT project aims to develop the type of "change agents" that will promote greater use of data by public child welfare agencies. They conclude by explaining that, if successful, Cal-CWLT will have prepared 25 new child welfare professionals to obtain and understand high-quality data, effectively rely on them as evidence, and provide leadership in an environment that values data.

Building an Evidence-Driven Child Welfare Workforce: A University-Agency Partnership is available at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10437797.2015.1073080?needAccess=true (PDF - 454 KB).
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Child Welfare Research
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4931


Developing Infant-Toddler Relationship-Based Care

According to a recent research brief from the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) within the Administration for Children and Families within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, early childhood practitioners and policymakers should encourage the establishment of relationship-based care for infants and toddlers to promote more responsive caregiving. The OPRE brief notes that infants and toddlers learn best in the context of relationships with caregivers who know them well, and responsive caregiving provides the foundation infants and toddlers need to be engaged learners in preschool and beyond. The OPRE brief explains the relationship-based care approach, related practice considerations, and the implications of existing State standards for incorporating relationship-based care into early care programs.

It also points out that approximately half of all children under age 3 in the United States have some sort of regular child care arrangement and that developmental research supports relationship-based early care and education to optimize learning in infants and toddlers and improve long-term outcomes.

According to the brief, "policies, procedures, and practices (or specific components) that support families, teachers, and children as they build relationships with and among each other" are at the heart of relationship-based care. This interaction forms a partnership that allows families, teachers, and children to better understand each other's needs and promotes trust, security, and comfort.

The brief recommends two relationship-based care supports: primary caregiving and continuity of care. Primary caregiving involves assigning infants or toddlers to one teacher who has the primary responsibility of caring for a small group of children within a larger group setting. The primary caregiver takes the lead in building relationships with the children and families in their care "by providing intentional and individual care for the child's routine needs such as feeding, sleeping, and diapering times." This person also keeps track of a child's developmental progress and communicates regularly with the parents. Continuity of care refers to the practice of keeping infants and young children and their caregivers together for an extended period of time—preferably until the child turns 3—rather than switching to a new caregiver or new group based on age or developmental milestones.

OPRE points to several options that existing child care centers can explore for promoting relationship-based care, including organizational, staff, and space/facility adjustments to enhance the teacher-child relationship. The brief also notes that States can incentivize this approach by rewarding child care centers that use primary caregiving and continuity of care with additional supports or higher subsidy payments.

The May 2016 OPRE Research-to-Practice Brief, Including Relationship-Based Care Practices in Infant-Toddler Care: Implications for Practice and Policy (OPRE Report #2016-46) is available at https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/opre/nitr_inquire_may_2016_070616_b508compliant.pdf (1,320 KB).
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Child Welfare Research
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4932


Role of Technology in Youth Harassment Victimization

Youth who are harassed and victimized by their peers suffer most from technology-based bullying when it is reinforced by in-person harassment, according to a recent U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) study. The study was conducted by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention within the DOJ National Institute of Justice to evaluate technology-based harassment within the context of other types of youth victimization and risk factors.

The Technology Harassment Victimization study was conducted between December 2013 and March 2014 using a telephone survey designed for the following purposes:

The study targeted youth aged 8–17 and asked questions about technology use, perpetration, bystander experiences, psychosocial characteristics, victimization history, and degree of emotional distress. Caregivers provided demographic information about the respondents—the child's gender, age, race/ethnicity, family structure, and socioeconomic status. Of the 2,127 youth in the original sample, 791 responded to the survey.

The study evaluated technology-based-only harassment, in-person-only harassment, and mixed forms of harassment and asked youth if they had experienced the following in the last year:

If so, the youth were invited to share specific details about the incidents. Of the 791 respondents, 34 percent reported 311 unique harassment incidents in the last year. In 70 percent of incidents, respondents reported that there was a bystander who tried to make them feel better. While negative bystander behaviors were less common, bystanders joined in or helped to make the harassment worse in 24 percent of the reported incidents.

The study made the following conclusions:

The Role of Technology in Youth Harassment Victimization is available at https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/250079.pdf?ed2f26df2d9c416fbddddd2330a778c6=nrphxbhrdu-nrunhhnzh (PDF- 509 KB).
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Child Welfare Research
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4933


Strategies and Tools for Practice

Introduction to Child Welfare Funding

Child welfare funding can come from a variety of places, such as Federal, State, and local sources. The research brief, An Introduction to Child Welfare Funding, and How States Use It, published by ChildTrends, provides an overview of child welfare funding. It also describes how States use and access funds to achieve their goals, including where funds come from, how States make decisions about funding sources, challenges they face in accessing funds, and title IV-E funding and waivers, which allows for more flexibility in how the funds are spent.

The brief also provides advice and examples of best practices based on interviews with child welfare agency officials in 10 States (Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Ohio, Texas, Utah, and Wisconsin) that represent a significant proportion of the total national child welfare expenditures and have a current or previously approved title IV-E waiver.

The interviews supported several key findings:

The strategies and concerns addressed in the brief can help inform agencies as they make decisions to ensure the health and safety of the children, youth, and families they serve.

The research brief, An Introduction to Child Welfare Funding, and How States Use It, is available at https://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/2016-01IntroStateChildWelfareFunding.pdf  (960 KB).

 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Strategies and Tools for Practice
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4934


Structured Decision-Making Model

The National Council on Crime and Delinquency's Structured Decision Making (SDM) model is a suite of assessment tools that promote safety and well-being for vulnerable populations, such as youth in foster care and youth involved with the juvenile justice system, as well as vulnerable adults. The five-part SDM model combines evidence-based research with best practices to offer workers a framework for consistent decision-making and agencies a way to target resources toward those who can benefit most.

The SDM models focus on the following areas of child welfare:

Other SDM models include the SDM Model in Adult Protection, which helps agencies promote the safety of older adults and adults with disabilities, and the SDM Model in Welfare-to-Work, which helps employment counselors identify those most likely to have difficulty finding and maintaining sustainable employment.

For more information on the National Council on Crime and Delinquency's SDM models, visit http://www.nccdglobal.org/assessment/structured-decision-making-sdm-model.
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Strategies and Tools for Practice
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4940


Resources

Tips for Caring for a Child With Special Health-Care Needs

For parents of children with special health-care needs, forming partnerships with the child's doctors and other health-care providers is essential to making sure all of the child's needs are met. The tip sheet, TIPS: Caring for a Child With Special Health Care Needs: Partnering With Your Child's Provider, which was produced by the National Center for Family/Professional Partnerships, is divided into four sections, each of which can help parents and caregivers better communicate with health-care providers and understand their child's diagnosis:

The tip sheet also lists the qualities of a family-professional relationship, including mutual respect, communication, commitment, equality, skills, and trust.

The tip sheet, TIPS: Caring for a Child With Special Health Care Needs: Partnering With Your Child's Provider, is available at http://www.fv-ncfpp.org/files/4414/2149/5755/ParentsPartnering_01-16-2015r.pdf (474 KB).
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Resources
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4936


Is It ADHD or Trauma Symptoms?

When children exhibit aggression or frustration, are easily distracted, or are having difficulty in school, there is a tendency to diagnose these behaviors as signs of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, ADHD is not the only viable diagnosis. Children exposed to traumatic events can present with symptoms that mimic those associated with ADHD, which can lead to a misdiagnosis. 

In the podcast "Is It ADHD or Trauma Symptoms?" produced by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network, Beth Barto, L.M.H.C., interviews Heather C. Forkey, M.D., about how children exposed to traumatic events can exhibit symptoms that overlap with ADHD. Dr. Forkey explains that exposure to trauma affects the prefrontal cortex of the brain, which is the part of the brain that is important for executive function. Executive function is related to learning, impulse control, memory, and cognitive flexibility. In cases of trauma, the brain, in a sense, shuts down these executive functions in an effort to respond to the threat the child has been exposed to.

Dr. Forkey suggests disclosing any potentially traumatic experiences the child has had to pediatricians and other health-care staff. She also suggests that school staff observe the child in the classroom to determine whether the child is being triggered by anything in the school setting that would put him or her into a state of fear, which may be misinterpreted as ADHD.

To listen to the full podcast, "Is It ADHD or Trauma Symptoms?," go to http://learn.nctsn.org/mod/pcast/showepisode.php?eid=37.
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Resources
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4937


Training and Conferences

A Primer for Youth Justice Advocates

Established in 1984, the Crime Victims Fund is financed annually by the fines and penalties paid by those convicted of Federal offenses and offers an opportunity to fund services that could help youth and families who have been victims of crime. The parameters for how these funds could be used were expanded in 2016, opening up new ways to support youth who are at risk of or already involved in court engagement. The updated factsheet The Crime Victims Fund: A Primer for Youth Justice Advocates, which was produced by the National Juvenile Justice Network, is intended as a basic primer for youth advocates on how the Crime Victims Fund operates and how it might be possible to move some of these increased resources to the communities that lack these services.

The factsheet highlights the updated guidelines that are relevant to youth advocates, including the following:

Youth justice advocates can use this factsheet to educate themselves about the Crime Victims Fund, changes to the guidelines about using funds, and how they can leverage the fund to better serve youth and communities. The factsheet also includes a Q&A and links to additional information.

The factsheet, The Crime Victims Fund: A Primer for Youth Justice Advocates, is available at http://www.njjn.org/uploads/njjn-publications/VOCA_Fact_Sheet_Update_Nov2016.pdf?ed2f26df2d9c416fbddddd2330a778c6=tulhlzlejc-tuczhhzkh (PDF - 726 KB).
 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Training and Conferences
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4938


Conferences

Upcoming national conferences on child welfare and adoption from April through June 2017 include the following:

April 2017

May 2017

June 2017

 

Issue Date: April 2017
Section: Training and Conferences
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=185&articleid=4939



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