Children's Bureau Express02 2004 | Vol. 5, No. 1

Table of Contents
 

News From the Children's Bureau

  • White House Task Force Report Targets Foster Youth
  • HHS Assistant Secretary to Speak on Programs for Low-Income Families
  • Foster Youth Help Develop Curriculum and Provide Training for Child Welfare Workers
  • State Strategies for Permanency Planning
  • Visiting Between Children in Care and Their Families: State Policies
  • Mental Health in Child Welfare
  • Call for Articles on Transitioning Children to New Caregivers

Child Welfare Research

  • Involving Fathers and Their Families Through Family Group Decision Making
  • Realistic Expectations Found Key to Positive Outcomes in Special Needs Adoptions
  • In Appreciation
  • Casey Foster Alumni Achieve Success in High School Graduation, Employment
  • Children of Incarcerated Parents: Research and Resources

Strategies and Tools for Practice

  • Best Practice Guidelines for Service Planning
  • Meeting the Mental Health Needs of Foster Children: The Children's Psychotherapy Project

Resources

  • Enhancing State Child Welfare Systems
  • Funds for Transition from Foster Care to Independence
  • Scholarships for Foster Youth

Training and Conferences

  • Conferences

News From the Children's Bureau

White House Task Force Report Targets Foster Youth

The Final Report of the White House Task Force on Disadvantaged Youth, released in October 2003, proposes a comprehensive Federal response to the needs of millions of disadvantaged youth, with a particular focus on children in foster care. The Final Report presents a national youth policy to support all young people in growing up to be healthy, safe, and ready to participate in educational, professional, family, and civic life.

Four goals were identified for Federal investment:

Better management of programs. The Task Force recommends the creation of a Disadvantaged Youth Initiative to oversee policy and coordinate Federal efforts. Other recommendations for improving program management include:

Better accountability of programs. The Task Force recommends that better accountability be achieved by increasing efforts to understand "what works" and holding programs accountable for results.

Better connections. To foster better connections with parents, the Task Force recommends increasing parent involvement in Federal youth programs and advisory groups. Better connections with older (college-aged) youth also would be promoted through a Youth Service Initiative that would allow these older youth to participate in voluntary service with children in high poverty areas.

Priority for neediest youth. The Task Force singled out youth in foster care and migrant youth as high priority groups for targeting discretionary resources and as subjects of Federal interagency working groups that would address their most pressing needs.

In the case of foster youth, the Task Force also recommended creating a program to improve the quality of education for school-aged youth. The Education of Foster Youth Demonstration Program would include the following components:

Finally, the Task Force recommended that the newly created Interagency Working Group on Mentoring address the needs of foster youth. The Task Force suggested mentors could be assigned to foster youth both when school-aged children enter the child welfare system and when youth age out of care and transition to adulthood.

The Task Force was created by President Bush in December 2002 and charged with developing a comprehensive Federal response to the problem of youth failure, with a focus on enhanced agency accountability and effectiveness. Representatives from a number of agencies, including the Departments of Justice, Education, and Health and Human Services, made up the Task Force, which was chaired by the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy.

The Task Force's Executive Summary and the full text of the Final Report can be accessed at http://www.mpmn.org/Resources/white_house_task_force.pdf.

Related Items

For more on the needs of foster youth, see "Casey Foster Alumni Achieve Success in High School Graduation, Employment," "Funds for Transition from Foster Care to Independence," and "Foster Youth Help Develop Curriculum and Provide Training for Child Welfare Workers" in this issue.

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: News From the Children's Bureau
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=765


HHS Assistant Secretary to Speak on Programs for Low-Income Families

Dr. Wade Horn, Assistant Secretary for Children and Families at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, will be a featured speaker for the 2004 Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP) Audio Conference Series. In an exclusive, hour-long interview, Dr. Horn will discuss the Bush Administration's past efforts and future priorities for the programs he oversees for low-income families, including Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), foster care, adoption assistance, family preservation and support, Head Start, child care, child support enforcement, runaway and homeless youth, and mental retardation and developmental disabilities.

The interview with Dr. Horn is scheduled to occur Friday, February 6, from 12:30 to 1:30 PM. This is the first in a series of audio conferences titled, "The Squeeze: Helping Low-Income Families in an Era of Dwindling Resources."

Future topics in the series include:

The cost for each audioconference in the series is $16. For more information about the series or how to register, visit the CLASP website at www.clasp.org, or contact Soleste Lupu at 202.906.8079 or slupu@clasp.org.

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: News From the Children's Bureau
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=763


Foster Youth Help Develop Curriculum and Provide Training for Child Welfare Workers

Youth in foster care need support as they prepare for independence. A new curriculum developed by the Jordan Institute for Families at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the Southeastern Network of Youth and Family Services, and youth and practitioners from eight States across the southeast region, helps public child welfare staff strengthen their skills in working with youth ages 16 to 21 in foster care and independent living programs.

The project has benefited from the participation of current and former foster youth in all aspects of program leadership, development, and implementation. Youth serve on the project's advisory board and often participate as co-trainers. The curriculum itself was developed based on the results of a survey of 800 youth and 400 child welfare workers, and it was pilot tested in four States before implementation.

The curriculum emphasizes that support for independent living is most effective when youth are seen as resources, rather than as objects or recipients of services. Organized into eight 3-hour units, the course is designed to be flexible and highly interactive. Units include:

Materials include participant notebooks, a CD, and a video produced by and featuring youth. The video ensures youth voices are part of the training, even when a youth co-trainer is not available.

Now in its third and final year, the project is supporting training events across the southeast, training additional trainers, gathering and beginning to process evaluation data, and preparing to make curriculum materials available to a broader audience. By the end of the grant this month, it is anticipated that a total of 400 to 600 child welfare staff from all eight participating states will have been trained.

For more information or how to obtain a copy of the curriculum, contact:

Nancy Dickinson, Project Director
UNC, Chapel Hill
301 Pittsboro Street, CB #3550
Chapel Hill, NC 27599
919.962.6407
ndickins@email.unc.edu

Note: The development of this training curriculum was funded by the Children's Bureau, Grant # 90 CT 0060. This article is part of a series highlighting successful Children's Bureau Discretionary Grant-funded projects around the country, emerging from official Children's Bureau site visits.

Related Items

For more on the needs of foster youth, see "White House Task Force Report Targets Foster Youth," "Casey Foster Alumni Achieve Success in High School Graduation, Employment," and "Funds for Transition From Foster Care to Independence" in this issue of CBX.

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: News From the Children's Bureau
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=761


State Strategies for Permanency Planning

The Fall 2003 issue of Permanency Planning Today highlights State strategies to address permanency planning for children in the child welfare system.

The issue's lead article, "Achieving Permanence for Children in the Child Welfare System," notes permanency has been a significant focus of the Federal Child and Family Services Reviews. Programs being implemented in Georgia, South Dakota, Mississippi, Vermont, Connecticut, Arizona, and California to address this concern are described. Highlights include:

Other articles in this issue include:

Permanency Planning Today is published semiannually by the National Resource Center for Foster Care and Permanency Planning. It can be found on their website at www.hunter.cuny.edu/socwork/nrcfcpp/newsletters.html.

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: News From the Children's Bureau
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=2043


Visiting Between Children in Care and Their Families: State Policies

Foster care managers seeking information on State policies regarding visiting between children in care and their families will find a useful summary in a recent paper published by the National Resource Center for Foster Care and Permanency Planning. "Visiting Between Children in Care and Their Families: A Look at Current Policy" (www.hunter.cuny.edu/socwork/nrcfcpp/info_services/family-child-visiting.html) reviews State policies in the following content areas:

Policy excerpts are included to illustrate the wide variation among States, and a checklist is provided of 30 content areas that States should address in their own policies.

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: News From the Children's Bureau
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=2048


Mental Health in Child Welfare

The Summer 2003 issue of Best Practice/Next Practice addresses a number of issues surrounding mental health and mental health care in child welfare, including:

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: News From the Children's Bureau
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=2049


Call for Articles on Transitioning Children to New Caregivers

The National Abandoned Infants Assistance Resource Center is soliciting articles for the Fall 2004 issue of its newsletter, The Source. The theme of this issue will be helping children affected by substance abuse and/or HIV transition to new caregivers. Submitted articles should describe effective strategies, services, and programs that support and assist children before, during, and after the transition. Articles also may focus on transitional support provided to caregivers and siblings. Abstracts of 150 to 200 words are due Friday, February 13, to Amy Price, Editor (amyprice@uclink.berkeley.edu).

The Source is a biannual newsletter distributed to more than 2,500 administrators, policy makers, and direct line staff. It is available online at http://aia.berkeley.edu/publications/the-source/.

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: News From the Children's Bureau
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=2050


Child Welfare Research

Involving Fathers and Their Families Through Family Group Decision Making

Historically, non-custodial fathers have been disengaged from the child welfare system. The advent of ASFA and recent Federal initiatives focused on fatherhood, however, have resulted in new efforts on the part of the child welfare system to encourage the involvement of fathers and other paternal relatives. American Humane focuses on fathers and their families in a recent issue of Child Protection Leader (http://www.americanhumane.org/assets/pdfs/children/pc-qic-nrf-cpl-aug2003pdf.pdf).

The article highlights family group decision making (FGDM) as one avenue for encouraging paternal involvement. FGDM is relatively new, but research suggests that it results in increased involvement of non-custodial fathers and their families. The article suggests that by utilizing a framework that acknowledges both the importance of fatherhood and the barriers that prevent paternal involvement, professionals can work to maximize father and paternal family involvement to best serve the needs of children.

Related Items

American Humane is home to the National Center on Family Group Decision Making (http://www.americanhumane.org/children/programs/family-group-decision-making/national-center/), which provides training, information, and resources related to FGDM.

Read more about FGDM and fatherhood in previous issues of Children's Bureau Express:

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: Child Welfare Research
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=2044


Realistic Expectations Found Key to Positive Outcomes in Special Needs Adoptions

A recent study of families who adopted children with special needs found parental expectations had a significant impact on parents' satisfaction with the adoption, the quality of the parent-child relationship, and the perceived overall impact of the adoption on the family. These findings underscore the need to adequately prepare families adopting children with special needs and provide post-adoption services that are accessible, affordable, and available to families throughout a child's lifetime.

"Characteristics and Challenges of Families Who Adopt Children with Special Needs: An Empirical Study" is based on a survey conducted by researchers from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, of 249 adoptive families (including 373 children) in Nevada. All participating families were receiving adoption subsidies or had an adoption subsidy agreement in place as of January 2000.

Other findings included:

Children's behavior problems had the greatest influence on parental satisfaction. (Fewer behavior problems were associated with higher satisfaction with parenting.) Parents' expectations had the second greatest influence on parental satisfaction and the greatest influence on the other three adoption outcomes studied: quality of relationship with the child, impact of the child's adoption on the family, and impact of the child's adoption on the marriage. (More realistic expectations for the child were associated with higher satisfaction with parenting and more positive impact on families, marriages, and parents' relationships with their children.)

While the authors acknowledge the need for additional studies to validate these findings, they cite the following implications for adoption agencies:

"Characteristics and Challenges of Families Who Adopt Children with Special Needs," by Thom Reilly and Laurie Platz, appeared in the October 2003 issue of Children and Youth Services Review (Vol. 25, No. 10). It is available at http://kidscount.unlv.edu/newsletters/special_needs.pdf.

Related Items

Read more about special needs adoptions in previous issues of Children's Bureau Express:

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: Child Welfare Research
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=767


In Appreciation

The child welfare community laments the loss of two distinguished and longstanding contributors.

William L. Pierce, Adoption Advocate

William L. Pierce, Ph.D., a leading champion of adoption, passed away on January 13, 2004, after a long struggle with cancer. The founding president of the National Council for Adoption (NCA), Dr. Pierce helped shape public policy on adoption both in the United States and internationally.

Dr. Pierce was active on Capitol Hill and in the media, promoting legislation to reduce obstacles to transracial adoption and to make adoption more affordable for Americans. He was an ardent and tireless advocate for preserving the option of privacy in adoptions and for a national program that trains pregnancy counselors to present the adoption alternative.

In 1993, Dr. Pierce was a member of the U.S. delegation to The Hague and, in that capacity, helped draft the 1993 Intercountry Adoption Convention. In 1994 and 2000, Dr. Pierce was on the International Association of Voluntary Adoption Agencies and NGOs delegation to the Hague Conference on Private International Law. His involvement in these efforts helped create international adoption policies that continue to serve the best interests of children.

Dr. Pierce was a key figure in the adoption field for many years, and he will long be remembered for his many contributions to the welfare of children and families.

Ellen W. Carey, Children's Bureau

Ellen W. Carey, M.S.W., Director of the Child Welfare Capacity Building Division of the Children's Bureau, passed away on December 11, 2003, while recovering from surgery. Ms. Carey had led the Division since its inception, having joined the Children's Bureau in 1992 as National Adoption Specialist. In both of these capacities, she was an integral part of the operations and successes of the Children's Bureau.

Before her career with the Federal Government, Ms. Carey worked in the local Washington, D.C., area in the field of adoption. She held positions with several jurisdictions in Maryland, as well as with the Consortium for Child Welfare, Family and Child Services, Inc., in Washington, D.C. Throughout her career, Ms. Carey was known for her passionate advocacy for adoption, foster care, and the prevention of child abuse and neglect.

In tribute to Ms. Carey, the Adoption Exchange Association has set up a scholarship fund. The first scholarship will be awarded in July at the National Adoption and Foster Care Recruitment Summit. Donations to the Ellen W. Carey Memorial Fund can be sent to the Adoption Exchange Association, 8015 Corporate Drive, Suite C, Baltimore, MD 21236.

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: Child Welfare Research
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=773


Casey Foster Alumni Achieve Success in High School Graduation, Employment

Preliminary results from a national study of alumni of Casey Family Programs foster care services indicate many alumni are graduating high school (86 percent, including those obtaining a GED) and obtaining employment (88 percent). Assessing the Effects of Foster Care: Early Results from the Casey National Alumni Study reports data from life experiences, educational achievements, and current functioning of 1,087 Casey Family Programs foster care alumni served between 1966 and 1998. The study sought information on how these youth are faring as adults, whether they differ from other adults with regard to functioning status, and what key factors or program components are linked with higher functioning.

High school graduation and employment rates were positive despite the fact that youth experienced many placement changes (the rate of which decreased when they were placed with Casey). Characteristics that, working together, were found to predict the level of success of an alumnus at the time of interview include:

Assessing the Effects of Foster Care: Early Results from the Casey National Alumni Study is a report of the Foster Care Alumni Studies project, a collaboration of Casey Family Programs, Harvard University, University of Michigan, State of Washington Office of Children's Administration Research, University of Washington, and State of Oregon Services to Children and Families. The report is available on the Casey Family Programs website at http://www.inpathways.net/casey_alumni_studies_report.pdf. Future reports from this study will focus on identifying which youth are most at risk for poor outcomes and for which groups of youth particular services are more effective.

Related Items

For more on the needs of foster youth, see "White House Task Force Report Targets Foster Youth," "Funds for Transition from Foster Care to Independence," and "Foster Youth Help Develop Curriculum and Provide Training for Child Welfare Workers" in this issue.

Also see the following articles in previous issues of Children's Bureau Express:

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: Child Welfare Research
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=766


Children of Incarcerated Parents: Research and Resources

More than 1.5 million minor children have a parent in the criminal justice system. Although the majority of these children reside with another parent or relative, studies indicate at least 3 percent (or approximately 45,000 children) are in the foster care system. Because the number of women in jails and prisons has grown exponentially over the past decade, and women are usually the primary caretaker of minor children prior to incarceration, children of incarcerated parents will likely become a growing issue in the child welfare system. A number of recent research studies and related resources offer guidance.

Research

Resources

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: Child Welfare Research
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=768


Strategies and Tools for Practice

Best Practice Guidelines for Service Planning

A new publication from the Casey Outcomes and Decision-Making Project, Tough Problems, Tough Choices: Guidelines for Needs-Based Service Planning in Child Welfare, recognizes the need both for consistency in service planning based on best practices and for flexibility to meet the specific needs of individual families.

Designed to be used after safety and risk assessments have been completed and a case has been opened, these guidelines assist caseworkers in service planning for 13 specific case types (such as medical neglect, sexual abuse, or physical abuse). An additional guideline assists workers in selecting the most appropriate placement when a child needs to be removed from the home.

Each guideline provides:

By providing a formal protocol, these guidelines can help ensure consistency of decisions and improve decision-making results. As the authors note, however, these guidelines cannot replace caseworker training, nor should they preclude a team approach to child welfare services.

The development of these guidelines was originally funded by both the Annie E. Casey Foundation and Casey Family Programs. They can be downloaded free of charge from American Humane's website [Editor's note: This link is no longer available.]

There are two earlier publications in the same series, Improving the Quality of Children's Services: A Working Paper on Outcome-Based Models of Service Delivery and Managed Care and Assessing Outcomes in Child Welfare Services: Principles, Concepts, and a Framework of Core Indicators.

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: Strategies and Tools for Practice
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=759


Meeting the Mental Health Needs of Foster Children: The Children's Psychotherapy Project

The Children's Psychotherapy Project for Foster Children is an innovative program that offers children in foster care a stable relationship with a caring adult by providing long-term individual psychotherapy. Through this program, experienced therapists commit to donating one psychotherapy hour (pro bono) each week and to maintaining a therapeutic relationship with one foster child, for as long as that child needs treatment, no matter where the child is placed. In return for providing this service, the therapists receive weekly group consultations with senior clinicians.

Clinical experience and anecdotal evidence indicate the first wave of 50 children treated in the program is doing well, having remained in school and in placements, rather than on the streets. A protocol is now in place to collect more detailed outcome data on every child in every program, focusing on the areas of child behavior, mood, cognitive functioning, relationships, and placement stability. Data will include interviews with therapists at intake, annually thereafter, and at treatment termination.

The Children's Psychotherapy Project is the primary clinical program of A Home Within, a nonprofit organization created to support mental health programs for foster children, youth, and families. The first project was organized in San Francisco in 1993. Since that time, similar programs have been developed in 10 other cities or counties, with approximately 160 clinicians serving approximately 100 foster children. A Home Within hopes eventually to expand services to 2,500 children in 50 communities.

Information about the national organization and local chapters can be found on A Home Within's website at www.ahomewithin.org. Therapists or program managers interested in forming a local chapter should contact Dr. Toni Heineman, Executive Director, at admin@ahomewithin.org.

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: Strategies and Tools for Practice
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=772


Resources

Enhancing State Child Welfare Systems

Two States have recently released publications on their efforts to enhance child protection and permanency, in compliance with Federal regulations. These reports may be of interest to communities grappling with similar challenges.

Michigan: Addressing Barriers to Adoption in the Court System

In April 2003, Michigan's Supreme Court initiated a work group to address obstacles to adoption in child protection proceedings as discovered in the State's Child and Family Services Review (http://library.childwelfare.gov/cwig/ws/cwmd/docs/cb_web/SearchForm). In its final report issued in September 2003, the work group made a number of recommendations, including:

The final report can be found at www.courts.michigan.gov/supremecourt/Press/FinalReport.pdf (Editor's note: Link no longer active).

Minnesota: Guide for Long-Term Foster Care

The Federal government requires that long-term foster care only be used when other options (reunification, permanent legal and physical custody, or adoption) are not in the child's best interest. To ensure agencies comply with this requirement, Minnesota's Department of Human Services has issued a guide for using long-term foster care. This guide describes:

Corresponding State statutes are referenced, showing the reader how practice is linked to legislation. Guidelines for discussing long-term foster care with both children and foster parents are also included. Additionally, a matrix provides an easy-to-read description of Federal and State requirements for placement and permanency decisions, as well as how failure to comply with each Federal requirement impacts Title IV-E reimbursements.

A copy of the guide can be obtained on the State's website at http://edocs2.dhs.state.mn.us/lfserver/Legacy/MS-2297-ENG (Editor's note: Link no longer active).

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: Resources
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=2045


Funds for Transition from Foster Care to Independence

The Andrus Family Fund (AFF) supports projects and programs that promote positive social change through transition. One of the foundation's primary focuses is supporting successful transitions for youth from foster care to independence, especially through programs that go beyond job placement to career track planning, and beyond high school diploma equivalency to achieving postsecondary education goals.

Grantees must be willing to explore and incorporate William Bridges’ transition model as it applies to the transition from foster care to independence. Interested applicants should submit an AFF application form that includes a two- to three-page letter of inquiry. Applications are accepted year round and reviewed quarterly.

Recent grants (for up to $300,000) have been made to a number of programs that promote the transition to independence, including the Black Ensemble Theater (Chicago), the Buckeye Ranch (Grove, Ohio), the Independent Living Resource Center (New York), and the Oregon Social Learning Center. AFF does not fund provide funds to individuals, nor does it fund endowments, capital improvements, scholarships, or loans.

For more information, visit www.affund.org.

Related Items

For more on the needs of foster youth, see "White House Task Force Report Targets Foster Youth," "Casey Foster Alumni Achieve Success in High School Graduation, Employment," and "Foster Youth Help Develop Curriculum and Provide Training for Child Welfare Workers" in this issue.

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: Resources
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=2046


Scholarships for Foster Youth

Casey Family Programs has once again teamed with the Orphan Foundation of America (OFA) to offer the Casey Family Scholars Program for 2004-2005, which provides scholarships of up to $10,000 for young people who spent at least 12 months in foster care and were not subsequently adopted. Applicants must meet the following eligibility criteria:

Scholarship money can be used for postsecondary education, including college or technical/vocational training. The scholarships are renewable, based on satisfactory progress and financial need. In addition, Casey Scholars receive ongoing support through the OFA’s eMentor program.

The deadline for submission of Part I of the scholarship application is April 1, 2004. More information is available on the OFA website at www.orphan.org/programs/casey.html. (Editor's note: Link no longer available.)

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: Resources
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=2047


Training and Conferences

Conferences

Upcoming national conferences on adoption and child welfare through May 2004 include:

March 2004

April 2004

May 2004

Further details about national and regional adoption and child welfare conferences can be found in the Conference Calendar on Child Welfare Information Gateway:

www.childwelfare.gov/calendar

Issue Date: 02 2004
Section: Training and Conferences
URL: https://cbexpress.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm?event=website.viewArticles&issueid=50&articleid=762



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